1. Choose the correct option for the following questions.

a. Which of the following sets of organs are part of the circulatory system?
i heart, blood, and lung
ii. heart, blood, and blood vessel
iii. heart, liver, and lung
iv. heart, blood vessel, and liver
Answer: ii. heart, blood, and blood vessel

b. Which of the following blood cells lacks a nucleus?
i neutrophil
ii. Lymphocyte
ili. Monocyte
iv. Platelet
Answer: iv. platelet

c. Which disease results from a hemoglobin deficiency?
i. diabetes
ii. Hemophilia
iii. Anemia
iv. Leukemia
Answer: iii. anemia

d. How many chambers are present in the human heart?
i. 2
ii 3
iii. 4
iv. 5
Answer iii. 4

e. What causes the arterial wall to experience systolic pressure during the ventricle’s contraction phase?
i, Excessive pressure is created inside the heart.
ii. Pressure produced in the left ventricle of the heart is transmitted to the artery.
iii. The artery also contracts at the time of contraction of the left ventricle.
iv. Blood becomes thicker at the time of contraction of the left ventricle.
Answer ii. Pressure produced in the left ventricle of the heart is transmitted to the artery.

g. A person feels thirstier, hungrier, dizzy, and sometimes faints, has frequent urination, blurred vision. etc. What is his/her problem?
i. high blood pressure
ii. highbloodsugarin blood
iii. problem of uric acid
iv. Anemia
Answer: ii. high blood sugar in blood

i. Saambhawi injured her leg by accidentally hitting a stone while playing at school. Despite attempting various measures, her bleeding continued without ceasing. What could be the reason for this persistent bleeding?
i lack of hemoglobin in blood
ii. lack of white blood cells in blood
iii. lack of platelets in blood
iv. lack of red blood cells in blood
Answer: iii. lack of platelets in blood

J. Rasmila’s grandfather experiences joint swelling and body pain after consuming red meat, legumes, and fried foods. What might be the cause of his health issue?
i. high blood pressure
ii. high blood glucose level
iii. problem of uric acid
iv. Anaemia
Answer: iii. problem of uric acid

2. Difference between

a. Red blood cell and White blood cell

Red Blood CellWhite Blood Cell
They carry oxygen from your lungs to your body’s cells.They are like your body’s soldiers, fighting off germs and infections.
There are a lot of them in your blood, millions in a drop.There are fewer WBCs compared to RBCs.
  They live for about 4 months. They live for a shorter time, just a few hours to a few days.
  They help your body get oxygen and take away carbon dioxide.They help your body fight off infections and keep you healthy.  

b. Auricle and ventricle

Auricle  Ventricle
The auricle is like the “ear” of the heart.The ventricle is like the “pumping muscle” of the heart.  
It’s a small, flap-like part at the top of each heart chamber.It’s a larger, thicker part at the bottom of each heart chamber.
Its job is to collect blood and send it into the heart chamber.Its job is to squeeze and push the blood out of the heart to go to the rest of the body..  

c. Artery and veins

Think of arteries as the “highways” of your body’s circulation systemVeins are like the “return roads” in your body’s circulation system.
They carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart to deliver it to various body parts.They bring oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.
Arteries are thick and strong to handle the pressure of pumping blood.Veins are thinner and less muscular than arteries.

d. Pulmonary blood circulation and systemic blood circulation

Pulmonary Blood CirculationSystemic Blood Circulation  
This is the part of your circulation system that deals with your lungsThis is the bigger part of your circulation system that covers your entire body.
It takes oxygen-poor blood from your heart to your lungs so that it can get oxygen.It takes the oxygen-rich blood from your heart and sends it to all your body parts like your brain, muscles, and organs.
Once in the lungs, the blood gets oxygen, and then it goes back to your heart, but this time it’s oxygen-rich.After delivering oxygen and nutrients to your body, the blood comes back to your heart, but now it’s oxygen-poor.

e. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure

Systolic Blood PressureDiastolic Blood Pressure  
Systolic blood pressure is the higher number when you get your blood pressure checked, like 120/80.Diastolic blood pressure is the lower number in your blood pressure reading, such as 120/80. 
It represents the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart is squeezing and pumping blood out.It shows the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart is at rest, between beats.
Think of it as the pressure in your arteries when your heart is doing its strong beat.Imagine it as the resting or relaxed pressure in your arteries when your heart is taking a break.

f. Anaemia and haemophilia

Anemia is like having not enough healthy red blood cells in your body.Hemophilia is when your blood doesn’t clot or thicken properly.
It can make you feel tired and weak because your blood can’t carry enough oxygen to your body’s cells.This means if you get a cut or injury, your blood may not stop flowing, which can be dangerous..  
Anemia can happen for various reasons, like a lack of iron, certain diseases, or even genetics.  Hemophilia is usually caused by a problem with certain proteins in your blood that help with clotting. 

g. Angiogram and open heart surgery

AngiogramOpen Heart Surgery  
An angiogram is like taking special pictures of your blood vessels, especially the ones around your heart.Open heart surgery is a major operation where a surgeon opens up your chest to work directly on your heart.
It’s a less invasive procedure where a doctor inserts a thin tube through a blood vessel, often in your leg or arm.It’s done when there are serious heart problems that can’t be fixed with less invasive procedures.
This tube allows the doctor to inject a special dye that helps highlight your blood vessels on X-ray images.During open heart surgery, your heart may be stopped temporarily, and a heart-lung machine takes over the job of pumping blood and oxygen to your body.

h. Platelets and white blood cell

PlateletsWhite Blood Cell
Platelets are like tiny, sticky patches in your blood.White blood cells are your body’s defenders.
Their main job is to stop bleeding when you get a cut or injury.They act like soldiers, fighting off germs and infections to keep you healthy.
They come together to form a plug and help your blood clot, like a natural band-aid. They come in different types, each with its own job, like identifying and attacking invaders.
Origin: Produced in the bone marrow.  Origin: Produced in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues.  

3) Give Reason:

1). Blood is red.
Blood is red because it contains a substance called hemoglobin, which turns red when it carries oxygen. So, when blood has oxygen, it looks red.

2). WBCs are like the soldiers of the body.
White blood cells (WBCs) are like the body’s soldiers because they help defend the body against germs and infections. Just like soldiers protect a country, WBCs protect your body from harmful invaders like bacteria and viruses.

3). Wall of the ventricle is highly muscular or thicker than the wall of the auricle.
The wall of the ventricle is thicker because it has to pump blood to the entire body, and it needs more muscle power to do that. Think of it like a strong pump that pushes blood all over, so it needs a thicker wall to do its job effectively.

4). Wall of left ventricle is thicker than the wall of right ventricle.
: The wall of the left ventricle is thicker because it has to pump blood to the entire body, and it needs more muscle power to do that. The right ventricle only pumps blood to the lungs, which are nearby and don’t need as much force. So, the left ventricle’s thicker wall helps it send blood throughout your whole body.

5). Arteries do not have valve but veins have valves.
Arteries don’t need valves because they have strong walls that help push blood away from the heart. Veins, on the other hand, carry blood back to the heart, and gravity can’t do the job alone, so they have valves to prevent blood from flowing backward and help it move in the right direction. Think of valves in veins like one-way doors for blood.

6). A person with anemia feels tired after a short walk.
A person with anemia feels tired after a short walk because anemia means there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to their muscles. So, when they exert themselves, their muscles don’t get enough oxygen, making them feel tired quickly. It’s like trying to run on low fuel in a car; you can’t go far.

7). Arteries are deeply seated inside the muscles but veins are superficial.
Arteries are deep inside muscles because they carry oxygen-rich blood under high pressure from the heart to the body’s organs and tissues. They need protection from the surrounding muscles. Veins, on the other hand, carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart at lower pressure. They are closer to the skin’s surface because they don’t need as much protection, and this makes it easier for doctors to access them for medical purposes. Think of it like hiding something valuable (arteries) deep inside a strong safe, while something less valuable (veins) can be closer to the surface for convenience.

8). Blood group should be tested before transfusion.
Blood group testing before transfusion is essential because not all blood is the same. Different people have different blood types, like A, B, AB, or O, and they can also be Rh-positive (+) or Rh-negative (-). If the wrong blood type is given during a transfusion, it can cause serious problems. So, testing ensures that the blood being given matches the recipient’s blood type, preventing harmful reactions and making the transfusion safe. It’s like making sure you have the right key for a specific lock; the wrong key won’t work and might cause damage.

9). Blood coagulates slower or does not coagulate in hemophilic person.
In a hemophilic person, blood coagulates (clots) slower or doesn’t coagulate well because they lack certain proteins (clotting factors) that help the blood to thicken and stop bleeding when they get injured. These missing clotting factors make their blood unable to form clots as quickly or effectively as it should, which can lead to prolonged bleeding. It’s like trying to glue something together without the right adhesive; it doesn’t stick well, and things don’t stay put.

4. Answer the following questions.

a. Describe the main parts of the human circulatory system.
The human circulatory system has three main parts:
1). Heart: It’s like a pump that pushes blood throughout your body. It has four chambers: two atria (top) and two ventricles (bottom) that work together to keep the blood moving.
2). Blood Vessels: These are like the roads in your body where blood travels. There are arteries (taking blood away from the heart), veins (bringing blood back to the heart), and capillaries (tiny vessels connecting arteries and veins) that reach every part of your body.
3). Blood: This is like the delivery truck carrying important stuff (oxygen, nutrients, and more) to your body’s cells. It also picks up waste and carbon dioxide to take away.

b. Write the main function of blood.
Ans: The main function of blood isto carry important stuff, like oxygen and nutrients, to all the parts of your body and take away waste and carbon dioxide, keeping your body healthy and working properly.

c. When any part of the body is injured, the bleeding stops after a while. Why?
When a part of your body gets injured and starts bleeding, it eventually stops because your blood contains tiny cells called platelets that rush to the injury site. These platelets work together to create a plug, like a natural band-aid, which helps to seal the wound and stop the bleeding.

d. Ramila gets tired even after walking a short distance and also feels difficult breathing? What is the reason for this? Explain.
Ramila gets tired quickly and has trouble breathing after walking a short distance because her body might not be getting enough oxygen. There could be several reasons for this, such as a heart or lung problem. When her body can’t get the oxygen it needs, it makes her feel tired and breathless. It’s like trying to run without enough fuel for energy, and her body has to work harder to get the oxygen it needs

e. A person has blood pressure 130/90 mmHg. What does this mean?
A blood pressure of 130/90 mmHg means that the person’s blood pressure is a bit higher than the ideal range. The first number (130) is the pressure when the heart beats (systolic), and the second number (90) is the pressure when the heart is at rest (diastolic).Having a blood pressure in this range may indicate mild high blood pressure, which can increase the risk of heart and health problems over time.

f. Which device is used to measure blood pressure?
The device used to measure blood pressure is called a sphygmomanometer. It’s like a special sleeve that goes around your arm, and it tells you how hard your blood is pushing against the walls of your arteries, giving you your blood pressure reading.

g. Before the transfusion of blood to a patient, blood group of donor and receiver patient is checked by the doctor. Why?
Doctors check the blood group of the donor and the patient before a blood transfusion to make sure they have compatible blood types. If the blood types don’t match, it can cause a serious reaction in the patient’s body, making them very sick. So, checking blood types helps ensure a safe and successful transfusion.

h. Sarita’s grandmother shows the symptoms like frequent urination, tiredness, muscular spasm and numbness in hands and legs, and thirst. What is the problem with her?
Sarita’s grandmother might be experiencing symptoms of diabetes. These symptoms, like frequent urination, tiredness, muscle spasms, numbness in hands and legs, and increased thirst, can be signs of diabetes, a condition where the body has trouble regulating blood sugar levels. It’s essential for her to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I.  Mention the effect and preventive measures of high blood pressure.
Effect of High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):
1).Increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
2).Kidney damage.
3).Damage to blood vessels.
4). Weakened heart over time.

Preventive Measures for High Blood Pressure:
1).Eat a healthy diet low in salt, saturated fats, and processed foods.
2). Exercise regularly.
3). Reduce stress through relaxation techniques.
4).Take medications if prescribed by a doctor.

j. Respiratory system, digestive system and circulatory systemin human body are interrelated. Explain this statement with reasons.
The respiratory system, digestive system, and circulatory system in the human body are interrelated through their functions:
Respiratory System: This system is all about breathing. When you inhale, your lungs take in oxygen from the air, which is essential for your body.
Digestive System: This system processes the food you eat, breaking it down into nutrients like sugars, proteins, and fats that your body can use for energy.
Circulatory system: The circulatory system is like the delivery system of your body. It carries oxygen and nutrients from your lungs and digestive system to all your cells and picks up waste products like carbon dioxide.
Here’s how they are interrelated:
1). The respiratory system provides oxygen to the blood when you breathe in, and the circulatory system carries this oxygen-rich blood to all your body’s cells, including those in the digestive system.
2). Your digestive system processes the nutrients from food, and the circulatory system transports these nutrients to where they are needed, including in cells used by the respiratory system.
3). All three systems work together to keep your body functioning. For instance, when you eat, your digestive system breaks down food, and the circulatory system carries the nutrients to your muscles, including those used for breathing.
So, they are like a team, ensuring your body gets the oxygen and nutrients it needs and removes waste, helping you stay healthy and alive.

k. How is high or low blood pressure detected?
Ans: High Blood Pressure Detection:

1). A blood pressure monitor has a cuff that’s wrapped around your arm.
2). The cuff inflates and squeezes your arm gently while measuring the pressure in your arteries.
3). High blood pressure is usually defined as consistently having a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher.
Low Blood Pressure Detection:
1). The process is the same, but the readings will indicate that your blood pressure is lower than normal.
2). Low blood pressure doesn’t have a specific cutoff like high blood pressure. It’s more about how you feel. If you experience symptoms like dizziness, fainting, or fatigue, you might have low blood pressure.

o. Explain the blood circulation in the human body with a diagram.
Explaining blood circulation with a diagram is not possible in a text-based format. However, I can provide a brief description of the blood circulation in the human body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. It can be divided into two main circuits:
Systemic circulation: Oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart gets pumped into the aorta, which is the body’s largest artery. The aorta splits into smaller arteries, and these arteries divide even further into tiny vessels called capillaries. Inside the capillaries, there’s an exchange of oxygen and nutrients with the surrounding tissues. After this exchange, the blood becomes deoxygenated and flows into venules, which are small veins. These venules join together to form larger veins, which carry the deoxygenated blood back to the right side of the heart. This process completes the circulation cycle in the body.
Pulmonary circulation: Deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart is sent into the pulmonary artery. This big artery splits into smaller ones that take the blood to the lungs. In the lungs, a cool thing happens: the blood gets oxygen, and it says goodbye to carbon dioxide, which is like waste. It’s like taking a breath of fresh air.

p. Write the preventive measures for hyperuricemia.
Preventive measures for hyperuricemia, a condition characterized by high levels of uric acid in the blood, include: 
Watch Your Diet: Avoid foods high in purines, like red meat, organ meats, and some seafood. Also, limit sugary drinks and alcohol, especially beer.
Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water to help flush out excess uric acid from your body.
Maintain a Healthy Weight:
Being overweight can increase uric acid levels. So, try to maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise.
Choose Low-Fat Dairy:
Low-fat dairy products like milk and yogurt can help lower uric acid levels.
Regular Check-ups: Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your uric acid levels and overall health.

q. Explain the internal structure of the human heart with a neat and labeled diagram.

Atria (Upper Chambers): The heart has two upper chambers called atria. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body, while the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
Ventricles (Lower Chambers): There are two lower chambers called ventricles. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.
Valves: Inside the heart, there are four valves that act like doors to keep blood flowing in the right direction. The tricuspid and mitral valves separate the atria from the ventricles, and the pulmonary and aortic valves control blood flow out of the heart.
Septum: The heart has a thick wall called the septum that separates the left and right sides, ensuring that oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood don’t mix.
Blood Vessels: The heart is connected to a network of blood vessels. The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, and the pulmonary veins bring back oxygen-rich blood. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body.

r. Explain the main causes of a heart attack.
The main causes of a heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, are typically related to the narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients. The common causes include:
Blocked Artery: The most common cause is a blocked artery. This happens when a fatty substance called plaque builds up in the arteries over time, narrowing them. If a piece of plaque breaks off and blocks an artery that supplies the heart with blood, it can cause a heart attack
Blood Clot: Sometimes, a blood clot can form in a narrowed artery, blocking the blood flow to the heart. This clot can be a result of the plaque breaking apart or forming suddenly.
Other Factors: Other factors that can increase the risk of a heart attack include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, a family history of heart disease, and unhealthy lifestyle choices like a poor diet and lack of exercise.

s. Introduce angiogram and its importance.
An angiogram is like a special X-ray test that helps doctors see inside your blood vessels. It’s important because it allows them to check for any blockages or problems in your arteries, like those around your heart. By finding and fixing these issues, they can help keep your blood flowing smoothly, which is crucial for your heart and overall health. So, angiograms help doctors understand and treat problems with your blood vessels to keep you healthy.

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