1). Which Scientist introduced classification of living beings?
Ans:
Robert H. Whittaker introduced classification of living beings.

2). When was classification introduced?
Ans:
In 1969 A.D classification was introduced.

3). What is prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
Ans:
Prokaryotic is unicellular and not well developed cell and Eukaryotic are multicellular organisms and well developed cell.

4). What is unicellular and multicellular organisms and well developed cell.
Ans:
Those cells which have single cell is called unicellular organisms.
                    Those cells which have double cell is called multicellular organisms.

5). Why classification is important for us.
Ans:
 Classification is important for us because it help to understand different types of organisms. It helps to read organisms easily. We can recognize organisms easily. We can study about various types of organisms.

6). What is classification? Why are living beings classified?
Ans:
The method of arranging the organisms into groups is called classification.
                                 Living organism are classified mainly to avoid confusion, to make study of organisms easy and learn how various organisms are related to each other. In this ways, living beings are classified.

7). Write any two characteristics of the living beings belonging to kingdom planate with any two examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) They may be unicellular or multicellular.
      ii) They prepare their own food by photosynthesis.
                                      The any two examples are:
      i) Green
     ii) Brown

8). Write any two characteristics of the plants belonging to division algae with any four examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) The cell wall is made up of cellulose.
     ii) They reproduce asexually or sexually.
           Four example are:
i) Spirogyra ii) Volvox iii) Nostoc iv) Batra

9). Write any two characteristics of the organisms kept in the division Bryophyta.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i. True roots, stem and leaves are absent.
     ii. The main plant body is gametophyte which bears sex organs.

10). What types of plants are kept in the sub-division pteridophyta? Write with examples.
Ans:
Fern, Lycopodium, Equisetum, Selaginella and marsilea are the types of plants kept in the sub-division peteridophyta. Seeds are not enclosed in fruit. Needle shaped leaves are present.
 Example are : i) Pine    ii) Cycas

11). What types of plant are kept in the sub-division Angiosperms?
Ans:
Grass, Banana, Lotus, rice, wheat, pea, orange a mango etc. Flowering plants the types of plants kept in the sub-division Angiosperms.

12). Mention any 2 characteristics of monocots and give any 2 example of dicots.
Ans:
The two characteristics of monocots are:
      i) The seed of these plants bear only one cotyledon
     ii) They have a hollow stem.
                         The two examples of dicots are:
      i) Mustard
     ii) Mango

13). Which types of animals are kept in phylum porifera.
Ans:
Sycon, Spongilla, Euspongia and lecosolenia etc are the types of animals are kept in phylum porifera.

14). Write any three characteristics of the animals belonging to phylum coelenterate with any 2 examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
       i. The mouth is present but anus is absent.
      ii. The mouth remains surrounded by a ring and tentacles.
     iii. They reproduce by both asexual and sexual methods.
   For examples: i) Hydra ii) Jelly fish

15). Write any 2 salient features of the animals belonging to the phylum platy helminthes.
Ans:
They are given below:
       i) The mouth is present but anus is absent.
      ii) The nervous system is present.

16). Write down the characteristics of the animals belong to the phylum Annelid of the animal kingdom.
Ans:
The are given below:
       i) A closed blood vascular system is present.
      ii) Excretory and nervous system are present.
     iii) They reproduce by sexual method.

17). Write 4 characteristics of phylum echinodermata with any two examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) The body remains covered with spiny skin.
     ii) A water vascular system is present.
     iii) Sexs are separate.
     iv) Locomotion takes place with the help of tube feet.
                     Two example: i) Starfish   ii) Brittle star

18). Name any two animals that breathe through gills.
Ans:
They are given below:
  For Example: i) Fish  ii) Frog


19). Name any two plant having rhizoids.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) Fern
     ii) Marsilla

20). Name any two animals having a mouth but no anus.
Ans:
They are given below:
       i) Jellyfish
      ii) Hydra

21) Name any three animals which move through tentacles.
Ans:
They are given below:
       i) Hydra
      ii) Jelly fish
     iii) Wral

22) Write down the characteristics of the animals belonging to phylum chordata with examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) They contain gills in the embryonic stage.
     ii) The body is bilaterally symmetrical and triplublastic.
    iii) Post and tail present.
 Its examples are: i) Balanoglossus   ii) Herdmaria

23) Write down the salient features of the animals belonging to class pisces with any three examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) The body is differentiated into head, trunk and tail.
     ii) Locomotion takes place with the help of the gills.
    iii) Breathing takes place with the help of the gills.
    iv) The heart is two- chambered.
 For examples: i) Sea Horse ii) Shark  iii) Rohu

24). Write down the characteristics of the animals belonging to class Aves with any two examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) A toothless beak is present.
     ii) Heart is four- chambered.
    iii) They are warm- blooded animals.
Examples: i) Cuckoo  ii) Crow

25). What types of animals are called mammals? Write any two characteristics of these animals.
Ans:
Mammalia includes the  most developed vertebrates which directly give birth to the young ones and suckle are these types of animals are called mammals. 
       
The two characteristics of these animals are:
i) The body is covered with hair.
ii) External ears are present.

26).What are sponges? Where are they found?
Ans:
Sponges are sedentary attached to substratum mostly found in a marine water and some also found in fresh water.
                 They are found in marine water and fresh water.

27). Write any two function of tentacles found in the hydra.
Ans:
They are given below:
      i) Tentacles helps to move from one place to another place.
     ii) It is used for grassing and feeding in most castes.

28). What types of animals are called unisexual? Give any 2 examples.
Ans:
Sexes are separated these types of animals are called unisexual.
       For example: i. Hookworms  ii. Ascaris

29). What types of animals are called hermaphrodite animals?
Ans: Sexes may be united types of animals are called hermaphrodite.

30). What do mean by sporophyte and gametophyte?
Ans:
 A diploid phase in the life cycle of plant and same algae known as sporophyte.
                           The gametophyte is a stage in the life cycle and is found in all plant and certain species of algae.

31). Name the division of the plants having the following features with one examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
i) Having cones instead of flower: Gymnosperms
  Example: Pine
ii) Flowering having primary roots and secondary roots: Angiosperms
   Example: Sunflower
iii) Having naked seeds are needles shaped leaf: Gymnosperms
   Example: Pine
iv)Having fibrous roots, flowering plants: Monocotyledons
   Example: Maize
V) Flowering plants leaves having reticulate venison: Dicotyledons
    Example: Mustard

32). Which type of animals are called invertebrates? Give any two examples.
Ans:
Those animals without backbone or vertebral column is called invertebrates.
     For Example: Worms, Sponges etc.

33). Why is Carolus Linnaeus called the father of taxonomy?
Ans:
The father of taxonomy is called carolus Linnaeus because he developed a system known as the Linnaeun taxonomy for the categorization of organisms and nomenclature for naming organisms.

34). Why are living beings classified? Give two reasons.
Ans:
Living beings are classified because of easy to study and classification of living beings.
        It’s two reasons are as follows:
i) Scientist classified living into different kingdoms, phylum, classes etc
ii) It shows the interrelationship between the organisms.

35). Differentiate between
Ans:
They are given below:
a) Algae and Fungi

AlgaeFungi
Chlorophyll is present.Chlorophyll is absent.
The cell wall is made up of cellulose.The cell wall is made up of chitin and cellulose.
Reverse food is starch (gloucose).Reverse food is glycogen.

b) Cryptogames and Phanerogames

CryptogamesPhanerogames
Plant body is not well differentiate into stems, leaves.Plant body process well formed stem leave and roots
These are less evolved plants.These are highly evolved plants.

c) Bryophyta and Pteridophyta

BryophytaPteridophyta
True roots, stem and leaves are as absent.Flowers and seeds are absent.
The vascular system is absent.The vascular system is present.

d) Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

GymnospermsAngiosperms
Cones are present instead.Well- developed flowers are present.
Seeds are naked.Seeds are enclosed inside the fruits
Pollination takes places.Pollination takes places.

e) Tapeworms and Hookworms

TapewormsHookworms
Tapeworms are long pale yellow and flat.Hookworms can cause a red worm shaped rash.
The nervous system is present.Nervous system and reproductive system are present.

f) Starfish and Fish

StarfishFish
Locomotion takes place with the help of tube feed.Locomotion takes places with the help of fins and tail.
It is echinodermataIt belong to the pieces.

g) Seahorse and Horse

SeahorseHorse
A sea horse is small and live in the ocean.A horse is bigger and lives on land.
Male sea horse give birth to their baby and sea horses.Female horses give birth to their young one.

h) Bat and Bird

BatBird
It is mammal.It is a aves.
It give birth to their young one.It lay egg and feed their young.
Bat have jaw hones with sharpteeth.Birds have beak and on teeth.

36. Maize is called a monocot and pea is called a dicot, why?
Ans:
Maize is called monocot because their seeds has only one cotyledon.
                        Pea is called a dicot because they have two cotyledon in their seeds.

37). Frog is called an amphibian and snake is called reptile?
Ans:
Frog is called an amphibian because it found in both land and water.
                            Snake is called reptile because they can live slowly on land and very less dependent on water.

38). Why is fern called a pteridophyte? Give any two reasons.
Ans: They are given below:
      i) Pteridophytes are plants that do not have any flowers or seeds.
     ii) They can be considered as the first terrestrial vascular plants.

39). Write down the characteristics of the living beings belonging to the kingdom animalia with any two examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
i) They can move and so have locomotion
ii) They lack a cell wall and plastids.
iii) They are heterotrophic.
For example: i) Annelida    ii) Arthorpoda

40). Write down the characteristics of the plants belonging to the division Bryophyta and 2 examples.
Ans: They are given below:
i) The plant body is multicellular.
ii) It may be thalloid and leafy.
iii) True roots, stem and leaves are absent.
For example: i) Marchanti   ii) Moss

41). Write down the salient features of plants belonging to the division Gymnosperms with any two examples.
Ans:
They are given below:
i) Cones are present instead of true flowers.
ii) Pollination takes place with the help of air.
iii) Male and female cones are separated in needles shaped leaves are present.
For example: i) Pine      ii) Cendar

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